A jet engine is also called as gas turbine. The engine draws the air inside from the front with help of a fan and then with the aid of compressor, which is made up of blades that are attached to a shaft, raises the pressure of the air. The blades of compressor spins at a high speed and compresses the air. Then the compressed air is sprayed with fuel and an electric spark is passed to ignite the mixture.
As the burning gases expand, they blast out through nozzle which is situated at the back of the engine. Further, as the gas discharges from backward, the thrust moves the engine and the aircraft forward. As the hot air then passes through one more group of blades called the turbine. Rotating the turbine causes the compressor to spin.
The first jet engine designed by Sir Isaac Newton in the 18th century and was theorized on his third law of motion, a rearward-channelled explosion can propel a machine to move forward with a high rate of speed. As the hot air blasts in the backward direction the plane could move forward.
The global jet engine market is segmented on the basis of type, application and region. By type, the market is segmented into turbojet engine, turbofan engine, and turboprop engine. By application, the market is segmented into commercial aircraft and military aircraft. and by regions into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa.
- By Type
- By Region
- By Application
There are various types of jet engines as follows
- Turbojets: Expanding gases are pulled by turbojet inside and is compressed. The gases then flow through turbine due to which the turbine rotates. These gases spring back and fire out of the rear exhaust, pushing the plane in forward direction. Thus this type of jet engine is called a reaction engine.
- Turboprops: this jet engine is attached to a propeller. As turbine rotates by the hot gases, thus turning the shaft that drives the propeller. Small transport aircraft are powered by turboprops.
- Turbofans: Aircrafts that are powered by turbofans engines has gas generator. These gas generators are composed of combustion chamber, compressor, and turbine. In a turbofan engine most of the air flows or passes through a large fan attached at the front, or low-pressure compressor. And then the air is mixed with the gas-generator exhaust to produce a “hot” jet or is ejected directly as a “cold” jet. The key objective of this jet engine system is to increase thrust without increasing fuel consumption. And this is achieved by increasing the total air-mass flow coupled with reducing the velocity within the same total energy supply.
Advantages of jet engines over other engines are as follows:
- As jet engines are gas turbine engines they are offer accurate power-to-weight ratio as compared to other reciprocating engines.
- Gas turbine engines are smaller in size than their reciprocating counterparts
- Jet engines offer massive fuel efficiency benefit by using air or gases to operate
Key market players operating in the market includes, Pratt & Whitney, GE Aviation, Rolls-Royce plc, and Safran S.A..